Studies in Medieval History

Håkan Hardenberger established himself as one of the great trumpet players of our era in this recording featuring the ever-popular Haydn and Hummel trumpet.

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An interpreter on the other hand, is someone who translates orally or through sign language interpretation.

Numéros en texte intégral

Many complete job-specific training programs. Translators aid communication by converting information from one language into another. The goal of a translator is to have people read the translation as if it were the original. To do that, the translator must be able to write sentences that flow as well as the original, while keeping ideas and facts from the original source accurate.

They must consider any cultural references, including slang, and other expressions that do not translate literally. Translators must read the original language fluently but may not need to speak it fluently. They usually translate only into their native language.

The Translator and his Client

Nearly all translation work is done on a computer, and translators receive and submit most assignments electronically. Translations often go through several revisions before becoming final. The problem is with those who do not want things to be better.

They introduce ethnic politics to cover up their greed. It is evident that in all these versions, the semantic core of the source text or what Popovic refers to as the "invariant core' 12 has remained the same but different superficial target texts have been generated. It would be instructive to look at the different versions in English to discover that, indeed, we by no way take one version for the other. This is because the change of focus, the differences in the linguistic options of particular versions, are not cosmetic but pragmatic choices that are contingent on the client's brief and the consequent desire by the translator to achieve clear-cut communicative ends.

TT1: Literal translation. In literal translation, the source text ST is over-bearing and dominant and the translator tends to judge the validity of forms in his target text from the point of view of the source language and culture, as if all languages behave in the same manner. Consequently, TTI has merely followed the ST word-for-word as we can see from the following examples which sound unnatural in English:.

In English, the above sequence infringes on the norm. Persistent cataphoric constructions are not essential to English syntax. Even though, it may mark the forms stylistically, it remains alien to the genius of English. Compare: Nigeria is not just the North, it is not just the South which flows.

What are animal metaphors?

On the other hand, English would say "things" in a generic sense rather than 'the things' which is incorrect usage in this particular context. This incorrect use would thus betray the non-English origins of this TT or mark the text in which it appears as a translation. What the above examples show is that, in the literal translation above, ST linguistic flavour pervades the translation: ST syntactic structures, ST graphical norms, ST punctuation, etc.

Account Options

This intrusion of the ST into the TT, which is often referred to as "literalism" or word-for-word, makes the translation sound and look unnatural. This unnaturalness signals to the discerning reader that he is face to face with a translation of an absent original. TT2: Communicative translation recaptures the message of the original but re-expresses it freely and communicatively so much so that it does not feel like a text not originally written in English.

For example, nothing can be more natural than "Nigeria belongs to all Nigerians In this regard, " We know that some Nigerians want change, they ask for more justice not ' more of justice' as in the literal translation. The translation flows naturally as a specimen of a standard text in the target language and culture. TT3: Commentary makes "explicit" what is "implicit" in the ST often with more elaborate explanations, extrapolations, analogies.

For example, the following highlighted and italicized sequences are not in the ST but are axiological inventions of the translator:. What is really at play and what lazy people fail to see is the struggle between those who want change and greater democratic reforms and those who want to continue to exploit their own people on the basis of nondescript systems. For the conservatives, who are afraid that their privileges would evaporate once the democratic space is liberalized and the common man is empowered, those who clamor for change are rabid radicals and trouble-makers " This is because there are extrapolations and so much extraneous and polemical material.

This version is clearer and more pedagogical even though it has a higher degree of emotivity than the ST. This TT goes beyond the communicative approach which Lederer 13 canonizes and takes on the trappings of a "commentary". TT4 Adaptation adjusts the language of the original to suit a less sophisticated readership. Note the commonplace " Nigeria is for all of us " instead of the "Nigeria refers to The conative stance of this version is more evident. This explains why the impersonal tone of the ST " One knows that The colloquial tone enhances reader-identification with the problem raised in the original.

The target text is re-contextualized in line with the target reader and the reference to localizable ethnic groups Igbo, Yoruba, Hausa, Izon gives the target text TT a more personal and conversational flavour as contra-distinct from the source text that sounds impersonal. It overemphasizes the cognitive content at the expense of the literary or stylistic features of the ST. It does not leave out any of the points of the original but it does not accompany the facts with a corresponding "clothing": the skeleton has no flesh and what we have is a gist or a summary of the source-text ST.

It is evident that, arising from the empirical analyses of the translated versions above, the question may arise as to whether in some of these versions the source text ST is not vitiated. This is particularly critical because it bothers on the reliability and the responsibility 14 of the translated text TT. What is significant, however, as we have observed in the five different versions in English, is the claim that the original message has remained the same even though the different instructions from the client have generated five different target texts in English and this number could be more depending on the number of clients and the nature of their briefs.

In spite of the conscious analysis of the five versions above, the question may still remain whether in any of them the source text ST has been vitiated. This is particularly critical because it borders on reliability of the translated text TT which is, itself, a function of the client's instructions.

For, as Christian Nord reminds us:. Sometimes, the client's instructions define reliability to mean that the translation should reproduce the exact nature of the source text, meticulously rendering details of every aspect of the source text that is relevant for the client's action. Sometimes, reliability may simply point to summarizing certain paragraphs of lesser importance while painstakingly doing close readings of other paragraphs of key importance.

The World’s Worst Translator - Alternatino

It is possible to generate other slightly different versions under the same subheadings. We could even arrive at extreme options if we have instructions to produce an adaptation of the ST in English for children or, in line with "Skopos Theory" 16 , to produce a totally estranged TT in English with only pragmatic links with the ST. The versions so produced would be as valid as others as long as the purpose of the source text is maintained in the translations.

What this really points to is that 'fidelity' for the client may be a pragmatic, rather than an ethical, concept.


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It is problematic for practitioners and theorists to decree arbitrarily "validity scales" for one or the other version without relating these to the client. After all, as we have seen in the versions above, validity cannot be an abstract, neutral term. For, as long as the translator has to be paid for his work, he cannot on his own determine what should be delivered to his client. I wanted so much to share this story with everyone I knew.

If you are a believer on any level--of hope, change, love, Islam--I think this is a significant piece for you to read. View 2 comments. Oct 25, Amal Bedhyefi rated it liked it. If you read the first review , then excuse my naivety. This book has been assigned for me at Uni , Although I did not have big expectations, it sure caught me off guard. The simplicity of the language and Leila's almost poetic way of telling this story are what made it special. View 1 comment. Sep 09, Alicia rated it it was amazing. The story of oddly enough a translator: This is about a Sudanese widow who has embraced her Islamic religion.

She is living in Scotland when she start working as an Arabic translator for an Islamic scholar who is not a believer. After they fall in love she must decide what is stronger, her love or her faith. What this novel explores with great finesse is the true nature of faith. What it means to be faithful and what it means to give your life over to that. The language in this novel is a joy The story of oddly enough a translator: This is about a Sudanese widow who has embraced her Islamic religion. The language in this novel is a joy to read and the story is lovely.

Highly enjoyable and different look at the Islamic faith. When the viewpoint seems so rare, it makes you realize just how rare it is to have a muslim woman tell her own story and express her feelings in fiction. But it's not to be read just for it's particular point of view - it is also a beautiful story of being and loving and being alien in your own culture as well as the one you're living in.

The contrasts and the sameness, the love and loss that goes with human migration. You should definitely read Aboulela, and not just for the diversity! Aug 06, Deepti rated it really liked it Shelves: world-culture-and-conflict. The Translator is about Sammar, a Muslim widow, who moves to Scotland with her husband before he dies in a car accident. Its a moving and accurate tale about a demographic that is inexplicable to most Westerners: the Muslim woman. The tale starts with Sammar translating a document sent by a terrorist group.

She notes how rife with spelling mistakes it is, how pathetic and instantly creates a barrier between Muslims like her, and uneducated extremists like them, fighting against a force they don' The Translator is about Sammar, a Muslim widow, who moves to Scotland with her husband before he dies in a car accident.

She notes how rife with spelling mistakes it is, how pathetic and instantly creates a barrier between Muslims like her, and uneducated extremists like them, fighting against a force they don't even understand, while she stands firm in her beliefs in a country that has no patience for them. But most Westerners don't see the difference, we equate the two because Sammar's belief is inexplicable to us.

But the book slowly changes that, we begin to understand what she is feeling because of Aboulela's poetry. We feel the grey Scottish fog press all around us, we feel the grey saturation, the cold, the isolation and loneliness inherent in Western society, and finally we feel the respite she gets from praying five times a day, and from studying the Quran. There are faults in every culture, though we can seldom see the ones in ours. But through Sammar's eyes we begin to see: our impatience, detachment, consumerism and lack of family.

Sammar's name is the word for evening conversations or night talk where the whole family would gather and spend time together watching the sky before sleeping.

Revenge of the Translator

This concept has all but disappeared in our busy lives where we don't even make time to have dinner together. But as Sammar is surprised to discover, because of the pollution and increase of Western ideas of consumerism, it is disappearing from the East as well. Sammar's perspective gives us pause to consider weather our ideas are really the right ones. Her love story with Rae gives us a chance to connect to her.

Her desire to be loved, her fear of rejection, the harsh words that pour out of her when she feels rejected, and finally the humbling realization of her selfishness. Her struggle to achieve happiness while staying true to her beliefs shows the depth of her belief in a way that is tangible to our secular society. I was both absorbed by and ambivalent about this book - which is an oddity, because I wouldn't have thought it was possible to be both at once.

But here I am - absorbed and ambivalent - having wanted very much to see where the story would go, and yet not really finding Aboulela's writing particularly compelling. The Translator focuses on the life of Summar, a young, Sudanese widow in Aberdeen, who translates Arabic texts for a department at the local university. There she meets Rae, an Islamic sc I was both absorbed by and ambivalent about this book - which is an oddity, because I wouldn't have thought it was possible to be both at once.